Incoterms provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade. The Incoterms rules or International Commercial terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). The Incoterms or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) relating to Incoterms is the eighth set of pre-defined international contract terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce, with the first set having.

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The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards. Rules for Sea and Inland Waterway Transport: The buyer should note that under CIP the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover.

If the seller is not able to organize unloading, they should consider shipping under DAP terms instead.

This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The remaining seven incoterms are regarding all transport modalities.

Incoterms® rules 2010

DAT – Delivered at Terminal: In this case, the oncoterm must also arrange for export clearance. If the buyer requires the seller to obtain insurance, the Incoterm CIP should be considered instead. If the parties agree that the seller should be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term means the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment.


Freight transport International trade law. This term represents the seller’s minimum obligation, since he only has inctoerm place the goods at the disposal of the buyer.

Incoterms® | USCIB

Retrieved October 13, The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are alongside the ship, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards. EXW means that a buyer incurs the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. While these terms do not feature in the current version of Incoterms it is possible that they may be seen in sales order contracts.

Also it does not define where titles transfer and does not address the price payable, currency or credit items. Incoterms also formally defined delivery. icnoterm

A step further than FAS. Who has to do what en at what time? It may well be that another Incoterm, such as FCA seller’s premisesmay be more suitable, since this puts the onus for declaring the goods for export onto the seller, which provides for more control over the export process.

DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid This term means the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer’s vessel at the incoetrm port of shipment.


This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal. Should the buyer wish to have more insurance protection, it will need either to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make its own extra insurance arrangements.


Demurrage jncoterm detention charges may apply to seller. To be used when delivering to a land frontier. There is no obligation for the seller to make a contract of carriage, but there is also no obligation for the buyer to arrange one either – the buyer may sell the goods on to their own customer for collection from the original seller’s warehouse.

Incoterms – Wikipedia

After arrival of the goods in the country of destination, the customs clearance in the importing country needs to be completed by the buyer, e. Seller delivers goods and risk passes to buyer when on board the vessel.

In an EXW shipment, the buyer is under no obligation to provide such proof to the seller, or indeed to even export the goods. Remember Me Sign in. Another point to consider is that CIF should only be used for non-containerized seafreight; for all other modes of transport it should be replaced with CIP.

A step further than FOB. This Incoterm requires that the seller delivers the goods, unloaded, at the named terminal. No risk or responsibility is transferred to the buyer until delivery of the goods at the named place of destination. The seller’s obligation ends when the documents are handed over to the buyer.

However, in common practice the buyer arranges the collection of the freight from the designated location, and is responsible for clearing the goods through Customs. The seller must contract for and pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.